Zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen
The invention relates to a method and apparatus for high performance switching zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen data packets in local area communications networks such as token ring, ATM, Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet environments, which are known as LANs all in allgmeinen.
In particular, the invention relates to a new switch architecture in an integrated, modular, single chip solution, which on a semiconductor substrate such as a silicon chip can be implemented. Die vorliegende Erfindung treibt die Netzwerkvermittlungstechnologie in einem Switch voran, der zur Verwendung in Ethernet- Fast Ethernet- Gigabit-Ethernet- und andersartigen Netzwerk-Umgebungen geeignet ist, welches eine Hochleistungsvermittlung von Datenpaketen oder Datenzellen erfordert.
The present invention drives the network switching technology is advancing in a switch that is suitable for use in Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet and other types of network environments which require high performance switching of data packets or data cells.
A switch that uses the disclosed elements, and a system that performs the steps disclosed, provides advantages in terms of cost and operation compared to the prior art. The present invention is configured to maximize the ability of packet-forwarding at linespeed, and also to provide a modular configuration wherein a plurality are configured of separate modules on a common chip, and wherein individual design changes to particular modules not the relationship of that particular module to other affect modules in the system.
The present invention therefore relates to a network switch having an internet port interface controller, said internet port interface controller comprising a memory and a high-performance interface for communicating with other switches and components through the transfer of data packets, which in the zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen are included.
The high performance interface includes a Datenverbindungsbus, wherein data is transferred both on the rising edge and on a falling edge of a clock signal and wherein the Datenverbindungsbus output drivers and a multiplexing circuit which is connected to the output drivers. The multiplexing circuit has two levels of glitchless or no glitch having multiplexers, wherein at least an output signal of an initial first level of glitchless multiplexors to a second level is inputted from glitchless multiplexors containing at least one glitchless multiplexor, to the data transmitted over the high performance interface data to serialize.
The switch also includes configurations of glitchless multiplexer, wherein the output signal of the first level of glitchless multiplexors is input to a glitchless multiplexer, which forms the second level. The multiplexing circuit may also contain additional multiplexers, which need not be glitch to supply data to the first level of glitch-multiplexers.
The present invention is also directed to a method for serializing data which have been transmitted through a high performance interface of a network Switchess, the method comprising the steps of receiving parallel data to be transmitted via the high power interface, and multiplexing the parallel data includes.
Dann wird ein Teil der parallelen Daten in einem ersten Register gespeichert, das auf einer steigenden Flanke eines Taktsignal getaktet wird, und wird ein anderer Teil in einem zweiten Register gespeichert, das auf einer fallenden Flanke des Taktsignals getaktet wird. Then, a part of the parallel data is stored in a first register, which is clocked on a zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen edge of a clock signal, and is stored in a second register another part, which is clocked on a falling edge of the clock signal.
The parts are then input into glitchless multiplexer of the first plane and the parts are multiplexed on the basis of a Multiplexerauswahlsignals inputted into the zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen multiplexer the first plane. The output signals of the first level glitchless multiplexer are output to a glitchless multiplexer of the second level and the data is then multiplexed by alternately selecting inputs on the basis of Multiplexerauswahlsignals, which is input to the glitchless multiplexer of the second plane.
Each of the glitchless multiplexer the first plane produces a function hazard when more than one input to the multiplexer of the first level glitchless changed simultaneously. The multiplexing zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen the data by the glitchless multiplexer of the second plane is scheduled so that the glitchless multiplexer of the second level only selects input from one of the multiplexers of the first level which generates no risk function.
The objects and features of the invention will be readily understood by referring to the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which: Logic diagram shown FIG. The well-known Ethernet technology, which is based upon numerous Zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen Ethernet standards, is an example of a computer network technology that could be modified and improved to remain a viable computer Technolgie. Based on the Open Systems Interconnect OSI 7-layer reference model, network capabilities through the development of repeaters, bridges, routers and more recently Switchess have grown that work with different types of communication media.
Thickwire, thinwire, twisted pair, and optical fiber are examples of media which have been used for computer networks. Switchess insofar as they relate to computer networks and Ethernet, are hardware-based devices which control the flow of data packets or cells based on a destination address information which is available in each packet.
A constructed in a suitable manner and implemented switch should be capable of receiving a packet and switching the packet to an appropriate output port at a rate to which reference is taken as the line speed or wire speed, which is the highest speed capacity of the particular network is.
The cable speed of the base Ethernet is up to 10 megabits per second, and that of Fast Ethernet is up to megabits per second. Gigabit Ethernet is to transmit data over a network at a rate of up to 1, megabits per second in the situation. As the speed increases, the design constraints and design requirements have become more and more complex with respect to following appropriate design and protocol rules and providing a commercially viable solution at low cost.
The speed of DRAMs as buffer memory in network switching leads therefore that valuable time is lost zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen it becomes impossible almost to operate the switch or the network at line rate.
Furthermore, the inclusion of external CPU should be avoided, since the inclusion of the CPU also makes it impossible to operate the switch at wire speed. Furthermore DRAMs require due to their dynamic nature, the refreshing of the memory contents to avoid loss.
Auch wenn DRAMs eine geeignete Geschwindigkeit beim Zugriff auf Bereiche auf der gleichen Seite besitzen, wird die Geschwindigkeit verringert, wenn auf andere Seiten zugegriffen werden muss.
SRAMs do not suffer from the requirement of the refresh and have a reduced operational overhead compared to the DRAMs, such as the elimination of side losses, etc. Although DRAMs have adequate speed when accessing zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen on the same page, the speed is reduced, must be accessed when other pages.
Numerous types of products are available to perform the switching-related functions at various levels of the OSI model. Hubs oder Repeater arbeiten bei Layer Hubs or repeaters operate at Layer 1 1 und kopieren und senden eingehende Daten zu einer Mehrzahl von Speichen bzw. Switching-related devices with two layer commonly referred to as multiport bridges, and are capable of connecting two separate networks with one another.
The spanning tree algorithm defines a protocol for preventing data loops. Layer 3 switches, sometimes referred to as a router reference can forward packets based upon the destination network address.
SchichtSwitches sind in der Lage, Adressen zu lernen und Tabellen davon aufrecht zu erhalten, die Port-Zuordnungen entsprechen. Layer 3 switches are capable of learning addresses and maintaining tables it upright, corresponding port assignments. Processing speed for layer 3 switches can be improved by specialized high performance hardware is used and by outsourced the host CPU so that instruction decisions do not delay packet forwarding.
Die Fast-Ethernet-Ports The Fast Ethernet ports 13 13 werden als langsame Ethernet-Ports betrachtet, da sie in der Lage sind, bei Geschwindigkeiten zwischen 10 Megabit pro Sekunde und Megabit pro Sekunde zu funktionieren, wohingegen die Gigabit-Ethernet-Ports are considered to be slow Ethernet ports, since they are able to operate at speeds of 10 megabits per second and megabits per second, while the gigabit Ethernet ports 15 15die schnelle Ethernet-Ports sind, in der Lage sind, bei Megabit pro Sekunde zu funktionieren.
Die Ports sind daher an das Netzwerkmedium angeschlossen koaxial, twisted-pair, Faser, usw. As is known in the art, the self-selection is an zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen of fast Ethernet, wherein the network is able to select the highest communication speed between a source and a destination based on the capabilities of the respective devices.
On zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen input side itself initiated and CPU-initiated learning of level 2 address information can occur. The address resolution logic ARL is used to support this task. Address aging is built in as a feature to prevent the storage of address information that zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen no longer valid or useful. To minimize hardware-implemented, common hardware elements in the silicon used to implement a plurality of input sub-modules on each particular module.
Which is discussed here allows look-up operations and filters at the same time, and therefore allows the processing of up to 6. Layer 2 look-up operations, layer 3 look-up operations and filtering occur simultaneously to achieve this level of performance. On the output side, the EPIC is to support packet polling in a position that is based either as an output or as a management class-of-Diensten- COS function. Die Kommunikation kann beispielsweise entlang eines PCI-Buses oder eines anderen akzeptierbaren Kommunikationsbuses sein.
The C-channel is bits wide, and runs at MHZ. Der Pakettransport zwischen Ports geschieht auf dem C-Kanal. The packet transfer between ports is at the C-channel. Once this channel is used for data transfer, there is no overhead associated with its use in relationship.
The P-channel or protocol channel is synchronous or locked to the C-channel. During cell transfers, the message header via the P-channel is sent by the MMU. The P-channel is 64 bits wide, and runs at MHZ.
The S or sideband channel runs at MHZ, and is 32 bits wide. The S channel is used for functions such as for presenting the port connection status for receiving the signal port full, port statistics, ARL table synchronization, memory and register access to CPU and other CPU management functions and the signal global memory full and common memory full. The use of cells on-chip instead of packets makes it easier to adapt the SOC so that it operates with cell-based protocols, such as asynchronous transfer mode ATM.
Currently, however, ATM utilizes cells which are 53 bytes long, with 58 bytes for payload and 5 bytes for header are. A port bit map is inserted into the P channel during the phase Cn1. The unlabeled bit map is inserted into the P-channel during phase Cn2, and a time stamp is placed on the P channel in Cn3. Regardless of operations on the C and P-channel of the S channel is used as a sideband, and is therefore decoupled from activities on the C and Zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen.
The decisions for the CPS channel happened outside the band. The decision operation for the C-channel is a round robin arbitration mechanism with request priority. Change the parts to access, and since the MMU is the only module in the area A, he zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen every other cycle access. The modules in the area B obtain access on a round robin basis, as stated above. Referring once again to the protocol or P-channel, a plurality can be disposed of messages on the P-channel in order to guide in a suitable way the stream of data flowing on the C channel.
The following list shows the fields that function and the various bit counter of the bit message on the bit channel. Wert 0 ist L2-geschaltetes Paket. Value 0 is L2 switched package. Wert 1 — das Paket ist ein IP-geschaltetes Paket.
Value 1 - the packet is an IP switched packet. Value 2 - the packet is an IPX switched packet. Value 3 - the packet is an IP multicast packet. Next Cell zurucksetzen risiken im zusammenhang mit binaren optionen 2 bits long - next cell was the only requirement to fulfill the cell header: Value 02 - if the valid bytes in this cell are Value 03 - if the bytes are valid in that cell Value 00 - if the valid bytes in this cell are Source Destination Port - 6 bits long - The port number, which sends the message or receives the message.
The design of the source or destination depends on the operating code. Cos - 3 bits long - COS - type of service for this package. J Bit - 1 bit long - J Bit identified in the message that the packet is a jumbo packet. S Bit - 1 bit long - S bit is used to indicate that this is the first cell of the packet. If S bit is set, all four cycles are valid. E bit - 1 bit long - E bit is used to indicate that this is the last cell of the packet.
If the E bit is set, the length field contains the number of valid bytes in the transfer. If it is set, the output port should append the CRC to the packet. Value 0x02 - is the regeneration CRC bit. If this bit is set, the output port should regenerate CRC. Value 0x00 - no change in CRC. Wert 0x03 — nicht verwendet.
Value 0x03 - not used. Len - 7 bits long - The Len bits are used to indicate the valid number of bytes in this transfer. This field is valid for each cell.